Should I bother cycling a planted tank before planting?
July 16, 20195 min read
Tank cycling is important for 2 main reasons.
1. Ammonia melts delicate plants (such as plants that come in tissue culture format) and is harmful to livestock. This is more important for aquasoil tanks that use ammonia rich aquasoils (such as ADA), where initial ammonia levels are very significant.
2. Having matured microbial community in the tank allows faster processing of organic waste pollutants. This reduces incidence of triggering algae. This take a long time without seed material (mulm/mix of old substrate from previous tanks etc).
Cycling before planting reduces algae triggers, and creates a better, more stable environment for sensitive plants & livestock. Diatoms and green dust algae are common in new setups; so common that many experienced folks think that it is an inevitable stage that all tanks have to pass through. However, both these algae are greatly minimized or absent if tank is allowed to pre-cycle and mature beforehand.
If you are using relative easy/hardy plants and non-ammonia rich substrates, then planting without pre-cycling is fine.
The old way
The old method of cycling a planted tank was to add a light fish load of hardy fish, which then produce organic waste and ammonia; the tank was then left to build up the bacteria naturally over time. This can take many weeks, as more and more livestock was added slowly. Seeding the tank with seasoned filter media or mulm from the substrate of a previous setup are additional ways to kick start the cycling process. Depending on how it's done, this process can be tough on livestock. In acidic tanks (pH <7), ammonia toxicity is alleviated as most of the ammonia is in the NH4+ (ammonium) format due to low pH environment.
Today's fish-less cycling with plants
Nowadays, fish-less cycling with plants is the rage. This involves adding liquid ammonia regularly into a new tank; fully setup except for livestock or plants, to grow the bacteria colonies. Follow these 3 steps:
A dose of 2ppm of ammonia is added, then the water is tested after a couple of days (takes about 3 days or so from a cold start to even see levels change). When ammonia levels start to decline, one would start seeing a build-up of nitrite. The first step of the ammonia oxidation cycle is started (but not necessarily completed).
Additional ammonia is then added every day to feed the bacteria (add enough to raise levels back to around 2ppm). After many more days, nitrite levels would fall, and one can then measure nitrate levels rising as the bacteria converting nitrite to nitrate has populated. This takes longer than step 1 as the bacteria responsible for nitrite conversion to nitrate populates more slowly.
Eventually, even with additions of ammonia, nitrites and ammonia would measure at 0 after a 6hr period, while nitrates accumulate. The ammonia cycling process for the tank is now complete. The entire process can take 4-6 weeks depending on tank parameters.
Typically, we would change 80% of tank water to reduce nitrates before adding livestock. Adding starter bacteria cultures (such as API quickstart) at step 1 greatly speeds up the process. Bacteria products work, but many are sensitive to temperature. Depending on how it is transported and stored, cultures could be DOA (dead on arrrival). That is the main risk/downside with bacteria products.
Cycling with ADA aquasoil / other ammonia rich aquasoils:
If you do not use starter bacteria products, it is a good idea to add mulm or used filter media to kickstart the cycle. Without the use of starter bacteria products, full cycling of the tank can take up to a month or more. The lowered pH of the tank water due to the buffering capacity of ADA aquasoil reduce ammonia toxicity as most of the ammonia exists as less toxic ammonium(NH4+) format in low pH (below 7). This allows hardy plants to be planted and grown even in early stages where ammonia levels are detectable. However, more sensitive plants, such as Utricularia gramminifolia, and tissue culture plants in general, should only be planted after the tank is cycled - they melt easily in fresh soil.
With the use of starter bacteria products, cycling time can be shortened to a week plus. After filling the tank, I like to let the tank soak for a couple of days without running the filter. On the second or third day I'll do a 100% water change then start running the filter. This removes organic debris, dust and sugars released from the woods and prevent the filter from taking up a lot of debris at the start. After starting the filter, I'll dose the starter bacteria culture into the filter intake. I'll increase the KH to 3dKH and add a few pieces of limestone (about 200 grams of Seiryu per 100 litres) temporarily to the tank to prevent tank water from becoming too acidic if the water is super soft.
Wait 4 days and take ammonia and nitrate readings. If there are nitrate readings, it means that the cycling has started. However, due to the tremendous amount of ammonia the aquasoil releases, chances are ammonia readings will still be high. I'll do a 90% water change and dose another dose of starter bacteria culture.
Wait a day and take ammonia/nitrate readings. If ammonia reads 0 and nitrates reading is positive, tank has cycled. However, if soil load is high, ammonia reading can still be positive as the soil releases a lot of ammonia, in that case, I'll wait a couple of days and repeat step 3. Due to reduced ammonia toxicity below pH 7, which is what will generally happen in aquasoil tanks, planting of standard, non-delicate plants can happen as long as ammonia readings are low (below 0.5ppm or so). However, for sensitive livestock such as shrimps I think it is better to wait till the tank has fully cycled.
In the setup videos on youtube, folks seem to plant immediately in fresh aquasoil?
It matters a lot the type of aquasoil used. Aquasoils with little to no ammonia release doesn't have the same impact as ammonia rich aquasoils. Milder soils like Fluval stratum or Tropicaare not as harsh as say fresh ADA aquasoil.
What you also do not see is the daily water changes, replacing of melted plants and cleaning of algae behind the scenes. Hardy species that are planted straight into fresh soil generally recover even if they take the initial hit from ammonia. However, for many beginners that do not have good control of their CO2 and other growth parameters, it could result in losing entire batches of plants.
For Nitrates, ammonia test kit and related products, click here.
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